Aug 17

linux — fdisk and makefs.ext3 to partition and format a new disk

To show a list for disk intalled on your server,you can issue the command below:

Source code    
fdisk -l | grep '^Disk'

Disk /dev/sda: 1000.2 GB, 1000204886016 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0004d76c
Disk /dev/sdb: 1500.3 GB, 1500301910016 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00065d74
Disk /dev/sdc: 1500.3 GB, 1500301910016 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x27b927b8

it shows my server has tree disk;Now let’s start to partion the second disk /dev/sdb,

Source code    
fdisk /dev/sdb

This command will switch you from shell to fdisk console,issue the m command fdisk will print all the available command.Below is a summary of the fdisk command:

  • m – print help
  • p – print the partition table
  • n – create a new partition
  • d – delete a partition
  • q – quit without saving changes
  • w - write the new partition table and exit

With those command, the new disk can be easily cut into any partitions.After partition,you need to format the newly created partition so it can be mounted.

Source code    
mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdb1

Then you can mount the partition as below:

Source code    
# mkdir /sdb1
# mount /dev/sdb1 /sdb1

To make the /dev/sdb1 partition be mounted after system reboot,you need to update /etc/fstab file as below:

Source code    
/dev/sdb1     /sdb1       ext3    defaults      1 2

or you can label the partition using e2label. For example, if you want to label the new partition /backup, enter

e2label /dev/sdb1 /backup

Then You can use label name insted of partition name to mount disk using /etc/fstab:

LABEL=/backup /sdb1 ext3 defaults 1 2

Aug 16

WHM — How to create acct from command line

how to create a whm reseller acct and assign a domain?WHM/Cpanel comes with a lot of script located in /script  directory. The /script/wwwacct can be usefull to create acct from ssh. So to create a new acct,we need to take a look at its syntax,run the command below from ssh:


It will print:

Please use the this syntax
wwwacct <domain> <user> <pass> <quota> <cpmod[advanced/?]> <ip[y/n]> <cgi[y/n]> <frontpage[y/n]> <maxftp> <maxsql> <maxpop> <maxlst> <maxsub> <bwlimit> <hasshell[y]/[n]> <owner> <plan> <maxpark> <maxaddon> <featurelist> <contactemail> <use_registered_nameservers> <language>

So,we need to supply domain,user ,pass etc,for example,

/scripts/wwwacct abcd  ‘password’  0 x3 y y y 0 0 0 0 0 0 n root 0 0 0 ” ” 0 en

This can be very usefull if you need to create a lot of new acct. The drawback is that we need to confirm for every acct.The comfirmation may can be bypassed  with sleep and echo command.

Aug 15

msyql — msyqldump only dump the database schema

mysqldump can dump whole database including both data and its schema(structure).what if you only need to make a backup of the database schema.To backup only the database structure,you can use the following msyqldump command line option –no-data,for example:

Source code    
msyqldump -u root -p --no-51&q=DATA&lr=lang_en">data database1 > db_schema.sql

This will only do a backup of structure of the database database1.

Aug 13

mysql -MySQL root password in DirectAdmin

If you got a server running DirectAdmin without mysql root info. how to get root access to mysql. In fact,mysql root password is set within the DirectAdmin installation process and written down to setup.txt(usually located in /usr/local/directadmin/scripts/setup.txt). If you didn’t change this password you can find the default one in the setup.txt, use the command below to see the contents of this file:
less /usr/local/directadmin/scripts/setup.txt

your password is stored in the line starting with mysql=

If you want to access mysql from ssh or console directly create a file in /root/ dir called .my.cnf:

touch /root/.my.cnf

and edit this file with the vi editor:

vi /root/.my.cnf

Add the lines below:


Fill the password with the pass you got from setup.txt, save the file with SHIFT+ZZ or :wq and exit. After this step just write mysql to enter MySQL console directly without password.
[root@test ~]# mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 169833
Server version: 5.0.77-log MySQL Community Edition (GPL)

Type ‘help;’ or ‘\h’ for help. Type ‘\c’ to clear the buffer.


Aug 12

mysql — create database with mysql client command line option

mysql client is powerful with its shell like console.what about to create database or mysql user from command line option if you don’t want to log into mysql console.the mysql -e option can help with this.To create database , we can issue the following command:

mysql -u mysql_user -p mysql_pass -e “CREATE DATABASE db1;”

To create mysql user from command line option -e:

mysql -u mysql_user -p mysql_pass -e “GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON db1.* TO ‘db1_user’@'localhost’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘db1_pass’;”

with the help of -e option,we can batch create database and mysql user in our script.i think that’s why mysql client program support this option.

Aug 10

zen cart — how to turn of ezPages header links bar

if you don’t want to ezPages links to show on the header bar or footer bar?how to remove or disable them?

In the admin control panel go to Configuration –> EZ-Pages Settings to turn them off.Click on EZ-Pages Display Status -HeaderBar and change the setting to 0.This will turn off the link bar in the header.
The same applies for the Footer Bar and Side box links!

Aug 09

zen cart — Basic search engine optimisation guide for zen cart

Meta tag optimisation

It’s important that meta tag tile and meta tag description contain enough search information for the search engine to index each product effectively,whilst also enticing browser to visit your site.

The meta tag tile and meta tag description are set up to automatically to show product name and descrition when you setting up product to your zen cart store.You can further enhance these tags for specific categories and products by clicking on ‘Meta Tags defined’ button in the catalog listing page within zen cart.

It’s normally advisalbe to show the product name,category and manufacturer in the Meta tag Title.The meta tag description should contain the product name and it’s main features.

product name optimisation

It’s important to include keywords in the product and category name.For example, a product with name ’30 x 78 mm (xyz666)  1 ply Till Roll’ will gain more search engine score than a name with ’30 x 78 mm (xyz666)’ without keywords.

product description optimisation

It’s beneficial to list keywords associated with a product in product description. This can be further enhanced by making the products keywords bold.or even more,you can consider randomly insert variant forms of the product keywords to the product descrption.

Aug 06

nginx – how location directive match performed

i am new to nginx! i tried to config nginx to server php only from site root,and only some php file to be excuted from a sub – directory. i need to get more detail about location.

This directive allows different configurations depending on the URI. It can be configured using both literal strings and regular expressions. To use regular expressions, you must use a prefix:

  1. “~” for case sensitive matching
  2. “~*” for case insensitive matching
  3. there is no syntax for NOT matching a regular expression. Instead, match the target regular expression and assign an empty block, then use location / to match anything else.

The order in which location directives are checked is as follows:

  1. Directives with the “=” prefix that match the query exactly (literal string). If found, searching stops.
  2. All remaining directives with conventional strings. If this match used the “^~” prefix, searching stops.
  3. Regular expressions, in the order they are defined in the configuration file.
  4. If #3 yielded a match, that result is used. Otherwise, the match from #2 is used.

i want to block access to any script to member directory,but allow access to /member/a.php and /member/b.php.

Source code    
          listen       80;
          index index.html index.htm index.php default.html default.htm default.php;
          root  /html/;
          location ~ /member/(a|b)\.(php|php5)
                try_files $uri =404;
               include fastcgi.conf;
         location ~ /member/.*\.(php|php5)
               deny all;
         location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
                 try_files $uri =404;
                 fastcgi_index index.php;
                 include fastcgi.conf;
         location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
                 expires      30d;
         location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
                 expires      12h;
Aug 05

linux – vi editor tutorial

This is a really good tutor from

There are many ways to edit files in Unix and for me one of the best ways is using screen-oriented text editor vi. This editor enable you to edit lines in context with other lines in the file.

Now a days you would find an improved version of vi editor which is called VIM. Here VIM stands for Vi IMproved.

The vi is generally considered the de facto standard in Unix editors because:

  • It’s usually available on all the flavors of Unix system.
  • Its implementations are very similar across the board.
  • It requires very few resources.
  • It is more user friendly than any other editors like ed or ex.

You can use vi editor to edit an existing file or to create a new file from scratch. You can also use this editor to just read a text file.

Starting the vi Editor:

There are following way you can start using vi editor:

Command Description
vi filename Creates a new file if it already does not exist, otherwise opens existing file.
vi -R filename Opens an existing file in read only mode.
view filename Opens an existing file in read only mode.

Following is the example to create a new file testfile if it already does not exist in the current working directory:

[amrood]$vi testfile

As a result you would see a screen something like as follows:

"testfile" [New File]

You will notice a tilde (~) on each line following the cursor. A tilde represents an unused line. If a line does not begin with a tilde and appears to be blank, there is a space, tab, newline, or some other nonviewable character present.

So now you have opened one file to start with. Before proceeding further let us understanding few minor but important concepts explained below.

Operation Modes:

While working with vi editor you would come across following two modes:

  1. Command mode: This mode enables you to perform administrative tasks such as saving files, executing commands, moving the cursor, cutting (yanking) and pasting lines or words, and finding and replacing. In this mode, whatever you type is interpreted as a command.
  2. Insert mode: This mode enables you to insert text into the file. Everything that’s typed in this mode is interpreted as input and finally it is put in the file .

The vi always starts in command mode. To enter text, you must be in insert mode. To come in insert mode you simply type i. To get out of insert mode, press the Esc key, which will put you back into command mode.

Hint: If you are not sure which mode you are in, press the Esc key twice, and then you’ll be in command mode. You open a file using vi editor and start type some characters and then come in command mode to understand the difference.

Getting Out of vi:

The command to quit out of vi is :q. Once in command mode, type colon, and ‘q’, followed by return. If your file has been modified in any way, the editor will warn you of this, and not let you quit. To ignore this message, the command to quit out of vi without saving is :q!. This lets you exit vi without saving any of the changes.

The command to save the contents of the editor is :w. You can combine the above command with the quit command, or :wq and return.

The easiest way to save your changes and exit out of vi is the ZZ command. When you are in command mode, type ZZ and it will do the equivalent of :wq.

You can specify a different file name to save to by specifying the name after the :w. For example, if you wanted to save the file you were working as another filename called filename2, you would type :w filename2 and return. Try it once.

Moving within a File:

To move around within a file without affecting your text, you must be in command mode (press Esc twice). Here are some of the commands you can use to move around one character at a time:

Command Description
k Moves the cursor up one line.
j Moves the cursor down one line.
h Moves the cursor to the left one character position.
l Moves the cursor to the right one character position.

There are following two important points to be noted:

  • The vi is case-sensitive, so you need to pay special attention to capitalization when using commands.
  • Most commands in vi can be prefaced by the number of times you want the action to occur. For example, 2j moves cursor two lines down the cursor location.

There are many other ways to move within a file in vi. Remember that you must be in command mode (press Esc twice). Here are some more commands you can use to move around the file:

Command Description
0 or | Positions cursor at beginning of line.
$ Positions cursor at end of line.
w Positions cursor to the next word.
b Positions cursor to previous word.
( Positions cursor to beginning of current sentence.
) Positions cursor to beginning of next sentence.
E Move to the end of Blank delimited word
{ Move a paragraph back
} Move a paragraph forward
[[ Move a section back
]] Move a section forward
n| Moves to the column n in the current line
1G Move to the first line of the file
G Move to the last line of the file
nG Move to nth line of the file
:n Move to nth line of the file
fc Move forward to c
Fc Move back to c
H Move to top of screen
nH Moves to nth line from the top of the screen
M Move to middle of screen
L Move to botton of screen
nL Moves to nth line from the bottom of the screen
:x Colon followed by a number would position the cursor on line number represented by x

Control Commands:

There are following useful command which you can use along with Control Key:

Command Description
CTRL+d Move forward 1/2 screen
CTRL+d Move forward 1/2 screen
CTRL+f Move forward one full screen
CTRL+u Move backward 1/2 screen
CTRL+b Move backward one full screen
CTRL+e Moves screen up one line
CTRL+y Moves screen down one line
CTRL+u Moves screen up 1/2 page
CTRL+d Moves screen down 1/2 page
CTRL+b Moves screen up one page
CTRL+f Moves screen down one page
CTRL+I Redraws screen

Editing Files:

To edit the file, you need to be in the insert mode. There are many ways to enter insert mode from the command mode:

Command Description
i Inserts text before current cursor location.
I Inserts text at beginning of current line.
a Inserts text after current cursor location.
A Inserts text at end of current line.
o Creates a new line for text entry below cursor location.
O Creates a new line for text entry above cursor location.

Deleting Characters:

Here is the list of important commands which can be used to delete characters and lines in an opened file:

Command Description
x Deletes the character under the cursor location.
X Deletes the character before the cursor location.
dw Deletes from the current cursor location to the next word.
d^ Deletes from current cursor position to the beginning of the line.
d$ Deletes from current cursor position to the end of the line.
D Deletes from the cursor position to the end of the current line.
dd Deletes the line the cursor is on.

As mentioned above, most commands in vi can be prefaced by the number of times you want the action to occur. For example, 2x deletes two character under the cursor location and 2dd deletes two lines the cursor is on.

I would highly recommend to exercise all the above commands properly before proceeding further.

Change Commands:

You also have the capability to change characters, words, or lines in vi without deleting them. Here are the relevant commands:

Command Description
cc Removes contents of the line, leaving you in insert mode.
cw Changes the word the cursor is on from the cursor to the lowercase w end of the word.
r Replaces the character under the cursor. vi returns to command mode after the replacement is entered.
R Overwrites multiple characters beginning with the character currently under the cursor. You must use Esc to stop the overwriting.
s Replaces the current character with the character you type. Afterward, you are left in insert mode.
S Deletes the line the cursor is on and replaces with new text. After the new text is entered, vi remains in insert mode.

Copy and Past Commands:

You can copy lines or words from one place and then you can past them at another place using following commands:

Command Description
yy Copies the current line.
yw Copies the current word from the character the lowercase w cursor is on until the end of the word.
p Puts the copied text after the cursor.
P Puts the yanked text before the cursor.

Advanced Commands:

There are some advanced commands that simplify day-to-day editing and allow for more efficient use of vi:

Command Description
J Join the current line with the next one. A count joins that many lines.
<< Shifts the current line to the left by one shift width.
>> Shifts the current line to the right by one shift width.
~ Switch the case of the character under the cursor.
^G Press CNTRL and G keys at the same time to show the current filename and the status.
U Restore the current line to the state it was in before the cursor entered the line.
u Undo the last change to the file. Typing ‘u’ again will re-do the change.
J Join the current line with the next one. A count joins that many lines.
:f Displays current position in the file in % and file name, total number of file.
:f filename Renames current file to filename.
:w filename Write to file filename.
:e filename Opens another file with filename.
:cd dirname Changes current working directory to dirname.
:e # Use to toggle between two opened files.
:n In case you open multiple files using vi, use :n to go to next file in the series.
:p In case you open multiple files using vi, use :p to go to previous file in the series.
:N In case you open multiple files using vi, use :N to go to previous file in the series.
:r file Reads file and inserts it after current line
:nr file Reads file and inserts it after line n.

Word and Character Searching:

The vi editor has two kinds of searches: string and character. For a string search, the / and ? commands are used. When you start these commands, the command just typed will be shown on the bottom line, where you type the particular string to look for.

These two commands differ only in the direction where the search takes place:

  • The / command searches forwards (downwards) in the file.
  • The ? command searches backwards (upwards) in the file.

The n and N commands repeat the previous search command in the same or opposite direction, respectively. Some characters have special meanings while using in search command and preceded by a backslash (\) to be included as part of the search expression.

Character Description
^ Search at the beginning of the line. (Use at the beginning of a search expression.)
. Matches a single character.
* Matches zero or more of the previous character.
$ End of the line (Use at the end of the search expression.)
[ Starts a set of matching, or non-matching expressions.
< Put in an expression escaped with the backslash to find the ending or beginning of a word.
> See the ‘<’ character description above.

The character search searches within one line to find a character entered after the command. The f and F commands search for a character on the current line only. f searches forwards and F searches backwards and the cursor moves to the position of the found character.

The t and T commands search for a character on the current line only, but for t, the cursor moves to the position before the character, and T searches the line backwards to the position after the character.

Set Commands:

You can change the look and feel of your vi screen using the following :set commands. To use these commands you have to come in command mode then type :set followed by any of the following options:

Command Description
:set ic Ignores case when searching
:set ai Sets autoindent
:set noai To unset autoindent.
:set nu Displays lines with line numbers on the left side.
:set sw Sets the width of a software tabstop. For example you would set a shift width of 4 with this command: :set sw=4
:set ws If wrapscan is set, if the word is not found at the bottom of the file, it will try to search for it at the beginning.
:set wm If this option has a value greater than zero, the editor will automatically “word wrap”. For example, to set the wrap margin to two characters, you would type this: :set wm=2
:set ro Changes file type to “read only”
:set term Prints terminal type
:set bf Discards control characters from input

Running Commands:

The vi has the capability to run commands from within the editor. To run a command, you only need to go into command mode and type :! command.

For example, if you want to check whether a file exists before you try to save your file to that filename, you can type :! ls and you will see the output of ls on the screen.

When you press any key (or the command’s escape sequence), you are returned to your vi session.

Replacing Text:

The substitution command (:s/) enables you to quickly replace words or groups of words within your files. Here is the simple syntax:


The g stands for globally. The result of this command is that all occurrences on the cursor’s line are changed.


Here are the key points to your success with vi:

  • You must be in command mode to use commands. (Press Esc twice at any time to ensure that you are in command mode.)
  • You must be careful to use the proper case (capitalization) for all commands.
  • You must be in insert mode to enter text.
Aug 04

zen cart – .htaccess file to protect images,cache,bmz_cache folder from attact

To compatible with most 3rd application,most server has a common configuration.This lead to some potential security problem.Zen car allow globally read and write to its images,bmz_cache,cache directory.

The following .htaccess config will help to disable the index list of image directory, block any attemp to running script from this can put this .htaccess in the zen cart images directory for better security.

Source code    

# deny *everything*
<FilesMatch ".*">
  Order Allow,Deny
  Deny from all
# but now allow just *certain* necessary files:
<FilesMatch ".*\.(jpe?g|JPE?G|gif|GIF|png|PNG|swf|SWF)$" >
  Order Allow,Deny
  Allow from all
OPTIONS -Indexes -ExecCGI

The .htaccess above blocks direct HTTP requests to all filetypes in this directory recursively, except certain approved exceptions(image and other approved static file). It also prevents the ability of any scripts to run. No type of script, be it PHP, PERL or whatever, can normally be executed if ExecCGI is disabled.This Will also prevent people from seeing what is in the dir. and any sub-directories. We’d better put this file to both images and bmz_image directory.

For the cache directory,we need to block running script and disalbe auto the .htaccess can be:

Source code    
# deny *everything*
<FilesMatch ".*">
  Order Allow,Deny
  Deny from all
OPTIONS -Indexes -ExecCGI